CP violation due to multi Froggatt-Nielsen fields
We study how to incorporate CP violation in the Froggatt--Nielsen (FN) mechanism. To this end, we introduce non-renormalizable interactions with a flavor democratic structure to the fermion mass generation sector. It is found that at least two iso-singlet scalar fields with imposed a discrete symmetry are necessary to generate CP violation due to the appearance of the relative phase between their vacuum expectation values.
Eur. Phys. J. C 51 (2007) 927-931